The database containing equipment purchase prices from different manufacturers is equally important for the designer and the manufacturer.
The first will have a solid basis for the innovative technology commercialization, the scale-up costs estimation, and the business extension,
while the latter - an entry-level price target not to miss.
These specifications set general technical and operational requirements for purchased equipment.
In other words, they define the equipment classes to be used in desalination and water treatment plants.
Unlike the datasheet describing the project specific requirements, the specification is intended
for many projects.
These datasheets are for the equipment specification, instrumentation calibration and wiring,
and commissioning. All of them had been used in real mega-projects.
Googling this question does not give any results, neither visiting the sites of major engineering
services providers and consultants. Obviously it is an experience nobody is willing to share.
Even worse, lately the last two contractors removed from their websites the client's questionnaires.
SWRO plant production capacity and operation modes are 2 inseparable halves.
The clients and the designers shall be in full agreement about them as
they may define "a family car" or "a racer" differing
in price by more than 100%! For example, the seawater intake filtering
system withstanding the jellyfish inrush lasting just several days a year
is 3 times more expensive than the ordinary traveling band screen.
There is a widespread confusion between the desalination plant availability
and reliability terms. The latter relates to the procured
equipment failure rate and is the negotiation point of the project package
whereas the first is not as it depends on the repair capabilities of the
plant personnel and the adopted preventive maintenance plan (PMP). It
necessarily includes such time-consuming procedures as CIP cleaning,
the membranes reshuffling and replacement and the seawater intake pipe pigging.
Quantitatively availability is always less than reliability. Depending on the plant design the latter varies within 97.5 – 99.5%. Availability below 95% is not rare.
The tender request for the desalination plant availability analysis (PAA) is becoming a commonplace.
Generally PAA shall demonstrate that the offered plant is reliable enough and convince the client
that the selected technical solutions are optimized to the availability criteria.
Most water companies do not have reliability expert on staff. So the only chance not to be disqualified
because of PAA is to outsource it. By the author experience, outsourcing of PAA is not always feasible
as the final scholarly report may add some US$ 30,000 to the offer preparation expenses and
at least 3-week delay to the offer submission date.
The aim of the hazard and operability (HAZOP) analysis is to identify potential hazardous events
and significant operability problems associated with the desalination or water treatment project.
Nobody will argue that the results of HAZOP depends heavily upon the human factor - experience and attitudes of the team members and the leadership style adopted.
Times are gone when the pump selection was boiled down to the definition
of the head, flow rate and material of construction. Nowadays high-capacity
high-head pumps for desalination applications are a sophisticated piece
of equipment always custom-tailored to the client requests. These pumps
are a critical path component of the project schedule and the major contributor
to the overall energy consumption of the plant.
This specification covers a horizontal axially split centrifugal pumps with heads above 150 meters
of water and the power capacity above 500 kW. They are indended for heavy-duty operation and
reasonable service life for highly corrosive environment usual for SWRO desalination plants..
This engineering report illustrates the level of problems ususally handled by desalination experts
in industry. The report describes the real situation encountered in the 100 MLD SWRO desalination project
This use case is interesting as it describes the DWEER-type valve inherent performance in ideal test environment.
Hydraulic design of side-ported RO vessel arrangement is where many manufacturers stumbles over.
Generally any RO vessels arrangement has two primary elements: the vessel row and the pipe manifolds,
From hydraulics point of view the side-ported vessels and pipe manifolds may be connected in a number of ways
It would not be exaggeration to say that success of the project bidding substantially depends
upon how complete the input data are. Below is a roadmap to these data collection with some brief
explanation of each milestone contents and/or necessity.
Michelangelo is quoted as saying "Trifles make perfection, and perfection is no trifle".
Here we'll talk about engineering trifles that pave the road to the plant perfect design.